References are your entries in the alphabetical list at the end of your article. Do not number your reference entries. This list should include only work you have cited.
Alphabetize references by the last name of a sole author, a first author, or an editor, or by the name of a corporate author (for instance, U.S. Census Bureau) or periodical (such as the Wall Street Journal) if there is no human author or editor. Order works by an identical author by year of publication, listing the earliest first. If the years of publication are also the same, differentiate entries by adding small letters (“a,” “b,” etc.) after the years. Repeat the author’s name for each entry.
Follow this form: Last names, initials (separated by a space). Year. Title (Boldface italic, capitalize only the first letter of the first word and of the first word after a long dash or colon.) City where published: Name of publisher. (For small U.S. and Canadian cities, follow the name of the city with the postal abbreviation for the state or province; for small cities in other countries, give the full name of the country.)
Granovetter, M. S. 1965. Getting a job: A study of contracts and careers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kahn, R. L., & Boulding, E. (Eds.). 1964. Power and conflict in organizations. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. 1978. The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
National Center for Education Statistics. 1992. Digest of education statistics. Washington, DC: National Center for Edu-cation Statistics.
Follow this form: Authors’ last names, initials. Year. Title (regular type; same single-capital rule as for books). Name of Periodical (boldface italic, title-style capitalization), volume number (issue number, if needed—see below): page numbers.
Shrivastava, P. 1995. The role of corporations in achieving ecological sustainability. Academy of Management Re-view, 20: 936 –960.
Nonaka, I. 1991. The knowledge-creating company. Harvard Business Review, 69(6): 96 –104.
Include an issue number only if every issue of the referenced periodical begins with a page numbered 1. (Look at more than one issue to check.)
If an article has no author, the periodical is referenced.
BusinessWeek. 1998. The best B-schools. October 19: 86–94.
Harvard Business Review. 2003. How are we doing? 81(4): 3.
Chapters in books, including annuals
Follow this form: Authors’ last names, initials. Year. Title of chapter (regular type, single-capital rule. In Editors’ initials and last names (Eds.), Title of book: Page numbers. City (same rules as above): Publisher. Examples:
Levitt, B., & March, J. G. 1988. Organizational learning. In W. R. Scott & J. F. Short (Eds.), Annual review of sociology, vol. 14: 319 –340. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
Dutton, J., Bartunek, J., & Gersick, C. 1996. Growing a personal, professional collaboration. In P. Frost & S. Taylor (Eds.), Rhythms of academic life: 239–248. London: Sage.
These include working papers, dissertations, and papers presented at meetings.
Duncan, R. G. 1971. Multiple decision-making structures in adapting to environmental uncertainty. Working paper no. 54 –71, Northwestern University Graduate School of Management, Evanston, IL.
Smith, M. H. 1980. A multidimensional approach to individual differences in empathy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.
Wall, J. P. 1983. Work and nonwork correlates of the career plateau. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas.
Include the author’s name, if known; the full title of the document; the full title of the work it is part of; the URL, http, or other address; and the date the document was posted or accessed.